Феномен Струп-интерференции в контексте теорий лексического доступа

  • Михаил Сергеевич Сопов Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9

Аннотация

Обсуждается психолингвистический подход к описанию эмпирических данных, полученных в  ходе использования Струп-теста и  его модификаций. Участникам классического Струп-теста требуется с максимальной скоростью называть цвета словесных стимулов, игнорируя их значения. При соблюдении определенных условий игнорируемая информация интерферирует с выполняемой задачей, вызывая снижение скорости и точности ответов. Феномен Струп-интерференции рассматривается в психолингвистике как неизбежное следствие процессов порождения речи. Его объяснение дается в ряде теорий лексического доступа, обзор которых является целью настоящей работы. Приводится анализ двух групп теорий лексического доступа, обозначаемых как теории относительной активации (модель У.Ла Хейа и коллег, модель А.Роелофса и концепция Р.Абдель Рахман и А.Мелингер) и теории абсолютной активации (концепция исключения ответов и модель К.Мулатти и коллег). В теориях первой группы постулируется, что Струп-интерференция возникает на стадии отбора релевантных задаче ответов. Согласно теориям второй группы, Струп-интерференция возникает на поздних этапах переработки стимулов как результат блокировки неверно выбранных ответов. По результатам обзора делается вывод о том, что теории лексического доступа не справляются с задачей объяснения известных интерференционных феноменов. Обсуждаются пути дальнейшего развития психолингвистических теорий Струп-интерференции.

Ключевые слова:

Струп-интерференция, тест Струпа, лексический доступ, порождение речи, лексическое соревнование, психолингвистика

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Литература

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Опубликован
2018-04-23
Как цитировать
Сопов, М. (2018). Феномен Струп-интерференции в контексте теорий лексического доступа. Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Психология, 8(1), 47-69. https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu16.2018.104
Раздел
Общая психология, психология личности, история психологии

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